26 For continuous criticism of the agreement by majors such as Sun Oil Company and Sinclair Oil Corporation, cf. NYT, 15 November 1946; “Statement by H.F. Sinclair,” February 4, 1946, LC, Connally Papers, Box 101, Anglo-American Oil Treaty Folder. 14 In the context of the marketing restrictions, Anglo-Iranian also agreed not to use Kuwait`s oil to violate Gulf`s commercial position. Nevertheless, both sides acknowledged that the obvious bilateral nature of the agreement was illusory, as Gulf had never traded oil in the Far East, Kuwait`s natural production market. In addition to marketing restrictions, Gulf also agreed to obtain oil supplies from Anglo-Iranian production in Iran and Iraq, instead of Gulf forcing kuwait Oil Company to produce oil in Kuwait. Loftus` Memorandum, “The Oil Situation… “, 13 January 1944, NA, BG 59, Notter File. Drilling began in 1936 in Kuwait, but it was not until 1938 that the company had real success with commercial oil production. Until 1942, Kuwait had nine production wells that were closed in July of the same year as a war measure. Shwadran, The Middle East, Oil and the Great Powers, 409-410.

30 In response to oil operations, see John A. Loftus Memorandum for the Secretary`s Staff Committee, “Proposed inter-company arrangements affecting Middle East oil”, 14 February 1947, NA, RG 59, 890F6363/2-1447; Paul Nitze to Will Clayton, February 21, 1947, NA, RG 59, 800.6363/2-2147. For the division`s efforts to promote a more competitive agreement, see memorandum meeting between Nitze, Loftus, Robertson, and Eakens and Orville Harden and B. Brewster Jennings, March 7, 1947, FRUS (1947), V, 651-654. To officially support the company`s efforts to repeal the Red Line agreement, see. Secretary of State to Gallman, 29. November 1946, FRUS (1946), VII, 39; Loftus Memorandum Interview with Orville Harden, Harold Sheets and B. Brewster Jennings, January 9, 1947, FRUS (1947), V, 630-631. To address persistent concerns about the cartel issue, see Kaufman, Burton I., “Mideast Multinational Oil, U.S. Foreign Policy, and Antitrust: the 1950s,” Journal of American History (March 1977), 937-959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar Several studies have found that in the early 1920s, the United States had considered an agreement with Britain to provide an open door for American business, To compete with oil concessions in the Middle East, no one could find a copy until recently. (2) In 2010, during the Doctorate. While researching oil and grand strategy, I found the only copy obtained in the Department of Foreign Affairs 59 decimal files of the National Archives and Records Administration II, College Park, Maryland.

The document and its accompanying note do not contain a standard decimal number, but they are included in the State Department`s archives concerning the internal affairs of the United States of America, 1910-1929, especially those relating to oil. (3) The accompanying note of 10 May 1921 addressed to the Foreign Trade Adviser of the Department of Foreign Affairs, Arthur Chester Millspaugh (most likely by the First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Fred Dearing), bears a decommissioning stamp dated 1 June 1993. . . .